[A little introduction by Marathon: ]
We were talking about solar eclipse phenomena recently. I told the kids about my memories from eclipses that I experienced as a boy, especially about how all the leaves of a tree would take on the shape of the eclipse.
After the conversation, I did some image searches so I could show them what I remembered.
I was stunned to find that the truth was nothing like I remembered it!
Instead, there are thousands of images showing pinhole-camera effects. That is, the light from the sun passes through tight squeezes between the leaves and casts itself on the ground as an inversion of the sun’s distorted shape. Here is a typical example (Photo by torbakhopper):
I couldn’t find a single picture to support what I remembered!
But I couldn’t seem to let go of it either. Without being able to explain very well why, it just seemed to me that there would be an eclipse shadow effect separate from the well-known pinhole effect.
I muttered something to the effect of, “We’d need some fancy lighting or a computer program to know if there was any truth to what I was thinking.”
Little did I know that wheels had been set in motion…
Over the past week, I have been working on a project. A coding project.
Sometimes we would play games with light during supper, when the light from the sun would reflect off glass buildings. I noticed that the shadows were almost perfectly crisp, even though our shadows fell on a wall that was 15-20 feet away.
That isn’t the case when the light is coming straight from the sun.
In the morning’s direct sunlight, the shadows are all fuzzy, and they would do all kinds of crazy stuff, like jumping over to other shadows, or some shadow that is a lot thinner than it should be…
A week ago, I had a realization about why shadows seem to warp sometimes.
I had always assumed that it was from the light of the sun bending, slightly.
But that isn’t the case. I realized that if you have a small slit letting sunlight through, there will be a light spot on the ground that is a good bit wider than the small slit. I realized this was because of the light from the right side of the sun shining through to the left of the slit, and vice versa.
During an eclipse, also, a tree shows many mini eclipses on the ground, on it’s shadow. This, we found out, is due to the pinhole effect.
Marathon still felt that a normal object, without a pinhole might also give an eclipse-like shadow. We made this big sketch, we kept messing up, but finally, we were pretty sure that any object would give a slightly eclipse-like shape.
It would take a long time to explain it all in writing. It’s pretty complicated.
So, instead, I did this coding project to make it easier to understand:
I consider ~150 inches from the ground to be the best distance for seeing the eclipse-like shadow.
Hope you like it!
Here’s a leaf-like shape’s shadow at 10 inches above the ground during an ~80% solar eclipse:
Now here’s the same shape’s shadow at the same moment if it was 12 feet off the ground:
Even the staple shape, that already is a crescent of sorts, will bend to roughly become a crescent in the opposite direction! Try it for yourself.
Here’s another neat effect we found. If you set the moon’s size to be slightly smaller than the sun so that it allows for a “ring of fire” at the point of complete eclipse, here’s what the shadow of a ping-pong sized ball looks like.
Another symmetrical shape that gets bent into a crescent:
The locals use the word “Andinismo” to mean “exploring the Andes Mountains”. So far our experience of the Andes has been limited to areas in close proximity to civilization.
I felt it was time to do something more, and summer was almost gone.
Following a two day scouting trip by Doodle and I a few weeks ago, Sudoku joined us this past Sunday for a three day attempt to reach the La Paloma glacier, the lesser of the two glaciers visible from downtown Santiago.
We picked the warmest sequence of days we could find, but the temperature still dropped below freezing at night where we slept.
The 20 km trail toward the glacier was quite busy on Sunday afternoon, but once night came at our base camp around 9000 feet, it would not be until midday Tuesday that we would see another human being.
It’s safe to drink the water at certain places along the hike. Here’s a little log of that for those interested:
The hike was hot and dusty and we had some boot problems and other difficulties with our cobbled-together gear. Fortunately, the three of us are all fairly close on shoe size right now, so we were able to swap around to mitigate the effects of boot irritations.
[Sudoku: My toes only came within about 2.5″ of the end of Dad’s boots, but they were pretty comfortable.]
The peaks ahead of us were amazing under light of sunset. The stars would have been great (Doodle saw five shooting stars on our scouting trip), but we had a dusk that seemed to last forever and a full moon.
Here in Chile, we’ve grown quite accustomed to having grazing animals around us when we slept outside in the countryside. Nonetheless, it was a bit unnerving to have horses nonchalantly grazing right up against our tent all through the night.
[Sudoku: I woke up several times to hear Dad shooing the horses away from our tent again.]
We woke feeling good on Monday morning and went for the glacier. It was clear and dry. (there was no dew on the tent.) I couldn’t keep up with the kids, so I stopped about an hour short of the glacier’s scree-field base and they went to the glacier without me. (And I had the camera with me. Hence no actual pictures of Paloma glacier. Sorry! Here are some.)
On the way down we had the thrill of watching a pair of soaring/gliding condors — practically stationary in the air just above us — as we approached one of the steepest sections of the trail.
I never saw a mouse, but I did see a hole in a bag of cheese left inside a backpack we hid in the rocks back at the camp site.
Here are some of my takeaways regarding Andinismo:
The animals we saw over 3 days: Horses, cows, snakes, lizards, mice, foxes, toads, and condors.
[Sudoku: The boys did a great job making sure we had everything we needed for the trip. They have short hair though, and weren’t able to warn me about the big tangle I had by the end of our trip!]
[Doodle: Once, when we were hanging out around some small pools of red water, I noticed that it wasn’t the water that was red, but that there were hundreds of tiny, red bugs, all crawling over each other.]
The skies were cloudy in Santiago this morning, but in the south of Chile, a rare sight occurred in the sky: a “ring of fire” solar eclipse. We watched it online. ūüôā †And even on our computer monitors it was breathtaking.
Here it is, seconds before the “ring of fire” eclipse was complete…
And here it is complete…
Here are those images again, lightened so it’s easier to see the red.
Dad and I have been going out every morning to ride our bikes since Sunday.
We started going out more often because a really nice bike path, wide and smooth, was recently made.
There’s this long section with no stops, slightly sloped because it goes along the river. We call it the Bicibahn, named after the Autobahn in Germany.
On the way back†down the bike path, I normally draft off Dad. If I can keep up with him, he’ll “torque out”. He has a mirror on his helmet, so he can see how I’m doing.
Early in the week, it was a little scary, but now it’s fun and exciting.
Most of the time, I have to mouth-breathe to keep up with him. Sometimes I’ll even get little pebbles in my mouth, thrown up by his tire.
Anyway, this morning, I was struggling to keep up with him†when I thought, “I wonder how fast we’re going?” I was in my top gear, and pedaling at 100-120 RPM. I was close to out-spinning my top gear.
is twice educated.
Sudoku and I are coding. She doesn’t have any freelance work this morning, so she’s working on some of our family projects, as am I.
Milkmaid is cleaning up around the apartment and washing the produce brought yesterday by “Wonderful Man Jr”.
Carman’s off work today, as usual on Saturday. He’s been working from home most of the time now, but spending lots of time on the phone with his boss. His freelancing is starting to click. He got the “rising talent” status recently on one platform. But no coding for this morning; he’s working out the chords for “Downeaster Alexa” on the guitar.
Rosebud just woke up and gave everyone their morning hug. Let’s see … Yup, she got bigger overnight again.
And finally, Doodle is hard at work on the farm, trying to get in his chores before the sun comes up. Yes, we’re starting to do some farming, right here in the city. Doodle is doing the physical work for our top-secret pilot project and, later today, Rosebud will be doing the data collection.
And now the room begins to brighten. Here comes the sun.
Today I was in ‘San Diego’ (that’s a neighborhood/street in Santiago) getting bike parts. At one store I bought a set of pedals, and had the following†conversation with the 60-something clerk.
Clerk: Where are you from?
Me: Where do you think I’m from?
Clerk: Talk a bit.
Me: I moved to Santiago four years ago with my family. I started…
Me: United States.
Wow!†I pass for a Latin American†foreigner!
I would argue that youíve had one big trick that humans figured out over the last 500 years. Before computers, it was fossil fuels.
But now weíre discovering how to pull free mental work out of the ground. Thatís going to be a huge trick over the next 50 years.
The idea that you can pull free physical work out of the ground, that was a really good trick, and it resulted in all of these exponential curves. But now weíre discovering how to pull free mental work out of the ground. [using Artificial Intelligence]
Thatís going to be an equivalent, huge trick over the next 50 years. Itís going to create that same kind of inflection point, and itís going to create even more opportunity and much more displacement.
I have a hard time understanding how the way that we best prepare the next generation for that future, is to have literally all of education policy, all of education decisions determined by folks that donít really have a foot in that world.
Iím not saying that all of the sudden, ďOh, itís about software.Ē The worst use of software in technology is in replacement of humans. This whole, ďOh, I give an iPad to a kid, and I walk away.Ē Thatís craziness. AR and VR, thatís not going to be it, either.
Itís about human beings. Itís about the relationship that kids have with their peers, with adults. Thatís what creates the motivation that creates the learning, but it seems odd to me that the purpose of school is to prepare kids for the future, and you donít have people in the mix thinking about education or education policy, who are very familiar with the future at all.
[In a typical school setting] you say, ďOK, well, I canít grade 20 different demonstrations of knowledge that come back from 20 different kids, so Iím going to standardize, Iím going to say, ĎThis is the way Iím going to test you, so that I can grade it quickly,íĒ youíre essentially training kids to think like computers. Thereís an irony … youíre training humans to do the kind of thinking that computers are getting better and better and better at doing.
You have an education system that was created for a mass production era, and now weíre in a mass customization era. You have a traditional education system thatís all about turning generalist agrarian producers into specialized consumers of goods and information. Weíre entering an era where being a producer of knowledge, being a producer of goods, being a producer of jobs is the way to be successful. It is the way to be happy, and itís possible because you have these unbelievable platforms that have been created that elevate the individual through the combination of digital technology and society.